⇡ lowRISC tagged memory tutorial

Running simulations

Programs can be run by first booting RISC-V Linux on the simulator or FPGA. Alternatively, they can be run without full OS support either in a pure bare metal mode or with the support of the newlib library (a C standard library implementation) and a simple proxy kernel.

Bare metal mode

Programs running in this mode have no library support. The host target interface (HTIF) must be accessed directly by the program if necessary, e.g. to print messages on the host terminal.

All the test cases found in lowrisc-chip/riscv-tools/riscv-tests/isa are run in bare metal mode. The success/fail status of each test is placed in the tohost CSR which can be checked by the host. For more information, see lowrisc-chip/riscv-tools/riscv-tests/env/p/riscv_test.h

Newlib/Proxy Kernel (PK)

Tests and systems not requiring access to a full-blown OS can be compiled for use with the proxy kernel (PK) and newlib. The proxy kernel simply proxies syscalls to the host over the host target interface (HTIF). This provides support for commonly used functions such as printf().

The riscv64-unknown-elf-gcc GCC compiler produces code for use with the PK and newlib.

RISC-V Linux

Alternatively, programs can be run under a booted Linux system. The programs running on Linux have the full system support, such as pthread, time, etc. However, the running time is much longer than the previous two due to the requirement to boot Linux in the simulation environment.

Running programs on the software simulators and FPGAs

Regardless of the whether programs require full Linux support or not, simulations can take place at different levels (e.g. functional, cycle-accurate) or by first synthesizing an FPGA implementation. Obviously, fast simulators or FPGA support is required when booting full operating systems.